How Does A Heat Pump Water Heater Work

How it Works — Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs)

The ability to relocate something is typically more difficult than the ability to create something new. HPWHs, which are based on this idea, use electricity to transport heat from one location to another rather than generating heat directly. If you want to grasp the notion of heat pumps, think of a refrigerator that operates in reverse. Instead of extracting heat from an enclosed box and releasing it into the surrounding air, a high-pressure water heater (HPWH) extracts heat from the surrounding air and transfers it to water in an enclosed tank of water.

HPWH are equipped with control panels that let you to choose from a variety of operation modes1, which include:

  • Efficiency and economy — By solely utilizing the heat pump to heat water, the system maximizes energy efficiency and savings. Auto/Hybrid – This is the default mode, which is appropriate for everyday usage since it provides energy-efficient water heating with a long-lasting heat
  • Water is heated only by the electric element in this high-demand setting, making it the least energy-efficient of the three. Save energy when you are away from home by putting the device into “sleep” mode until you return
  • This feature is not available on all models.

Electric Heat Pump Water Heaters

Utilizes the heat pump solely for water heating, resulting in maximum energy efficiency and cost savings. Automated/hybrid – This mode is perfect for everyday usage, as it provides energy-efficient water heating with a long-lasting heat source. Water is heated only by the electric element in this high-demand setting, making it the least energy-efficient of the bunch. Save money on electricity when you are away from home by putting the device into “sleep” mode until you return. VacationTimer (not available on all models)

All About Heat-Pump Water Heaters

It’s likely that you don’t spend a lot of time worrying about your water heater as long as it’s in good working order. However, if your water heater fails before it reaches the end of its 10-15 year lifespan, you may find yourself standing in a freezing shower. Or, even worse, the heater’s tank has rusted through, resulting in a damp mess in your basement, garage, or utility room, as well as additional expenses for drywall restoration and carpet cleaning. Although most homeowners understand the need of replacing a functioning water heater, the idea of spending money on a new water heater is difficult to sell to them.

  • However, replacing your present electric water heater with a new one that uses a heat pump and the heat from the air in your home to heat the water would benefit both your bank account and the environment.
  • Rheem water heaters are available for purchase at my local big box lumberyard.
  • A identically equipped and warrantied HPWH is listed for $1199 on the market today.
  • A $300 Federal tax credit will be awarded to you if you purchase an ENERGY STAR-certified heat-pump water heater in 2016.
  • More information on the federal tax credit may be found here.
  • If I purchase an HPWH from a participating distributor, my home state of Connecticut will provide me with an immediate refund of up to $400 on the purchase price of the HPWH.
  • Utility rebates may also be found by visiting locate utility rebates or by contacting your utility provider.

That’s a significant amount of money, especially when considered over the heater’s service life. This image is courtesy of

How an HPWH Almost Pays for Itself in Two Years

$1,199 minus $100 400 dollars for the first one, and 400 dollars for the second one. $699- $660 3 $39 $39 $39 1. a genuine savings on the $300 Federal tax credit for people in the 30 percent income tax bracket Connecticut is the second state to offer a reimbursement. 3. Annual energy savings of $330 multiplied by two years equals a total of $630. Additionally, purchasing a heat-pump water heater that has been recognized by the ENERGY STAR has significant environmental benefits. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency estimates that if every residential electric water heater were replaced with a heat-pump water heater, 140 billion pounds of annual greenhouse gas emissions would be avoided, which is equivalent to the emissions from more than 13 million vehicles.”

  1. In order to comprehend how a heat-pump water heater converts 68-degree or cooler room air into 120-degree water, you must first master the following two concepts: First and first, heat is a quantifiable kind of energy, and second, heat energy always goes from a hot to a cool temperature.
  2. One Btu is equivalent to the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of a pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit, or approximately 252 calories, in a single second.
  3. Heat energy may be transferred from one place to another, always in the direction of more energy to less (or warmer to colder).
  4. It’s not the metal’s coolness that’s making your hand feel chilly; it’s the coldness of your hand itself.
  5. Your hand may seem chilly, but this is only because it has less heat energy than the steel, which has really become warmer as a result of your touch.

How it Works

An HPWH operates by forcing room air over a radiator-like grid filled with cold liquid refrigerant that is contained within a closed system of tubes. The fan is located on the top of the water tank. The refrigerant has a low boiling point, and the heat from the air raises the temperature of the liquid to the point where it becomes a gas. The pressure of the gas is then increased by a compressor, which raises the temperature of the gas even further. In the heater’s tank, a pump circulates the tubes packed with hot compressed gas down and around the cool water, which serves as a cooling effect.

  • In the words of Trethewey, “Conventional water heaters generate heat, whereas an HPWH just transports it.” The byproduct of a heat pump is cooled and dehumidified air.
  • An HPWH, like an air conditioner, generates a limited quantity of distilled water that must be discharged outside or into a drain, which should be taken into mind while deciding where to install the heater.
  • The fan and the compressor both require power from the grid to operate.
  • A large number of internet user reviews state that they always have sufficient of hot water and never have to utilize the backup electric power.
  • Most of them also feature a vacation mode, which allows you to enter the amount of days you’ll be away from your computer.
  • Installation Points to Keep in Mind In contrast to other types of water heaters, you should not install an HPWH in a tiny closed closet because the space will not have enough warm air to operate the heat pump and the heat pump will fail.
  • Always remember that an HPWH will extract heat from the area where it is installed and reduce the temperature of the room in which it is installed, so installing one in a location that you already pay to heat might be a case of robbing Peter to pay Paul.

Ideally, you should choose a room with a clothes dryer or a utility room with a furnace as your site.

During the winter, an HPWH put in an unheated garage may rely more heavily on the electric-heat mode than a utility-room installation, owing to the lower temperature.

It’s likely that you already have a 220-volt cable running through the room where you’re replacing a typical electric water heater; but, if your old unit is gas, you’ll need an electrician to install a 220 circuit.

Check the manufacturer’s specifications before making a purchase; it’s probable that some units will not fit in a crawlspace with low ceilings.

In certain cases, HPWHs may be as noisy as some window air conditioners, which is something you might not want to hear if, for example, you’re thinking about installing a laundry room next to the bedrooms in your home’s upstairs.

The calculations and suggestions for water heater size are based on the number of people living in the house in some cases, but not all.

Furthermore, all of their websites are chock-full of information for their various models, such as how much insulation is surrounding the water tank.

Download this useful guide to saving money when you upgrade your water heater to an ENERGY STAR model now! ” data-upload-width=”740″ src=”” data-upload-width=”740″ “Download this useful guide to saving money when you upgrade your water heater to an ENERGY STAR model now!


In this step-by-step video with Richard Trethewey, you’ll learn how to install your own ENERGY STAR heat-pump water heater. Click here to learn more. And keep in mind that if your water heater is more than ten years old, making the investment now will provide comfort, savings, and peace of mind for the foreseeable future. For further information, please see ENERGY STAR.

Is a hybrid heat pump water heater right for me?

A hybrid heat pump water heater operates in the same way as a refrigerator, but in the opposite direction. An air conditioner takes heat from an enclosed box and transmits it to the surrounding air, whereas an electric water heater collects heat from the surrounding air and transfers it to the water in an enclosed tank. The cooled air is subsequently expelled by the fan. Because it transfers heat from one location to another rather than creating heat directly, it is a far more efficient method of heating water.

Why Choose an ENERGY STAR ®Certified Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater?

Water heating is the second most expensive energy expense in your house, behind heating and cooling, accounting for around 14 percent to 18 percent of your total utility bills. Water heating is also the most environmentally friendly. When compared to typical water heaters, hybrid heat pump water heaters can run at a cost that is less than half as high. Additionally, they chill and dehumidify the environment surrounding them in addition to heating and cooling the water. As an added assurance of excellent quality, hybrid heat pump water heaters that have earned the ENERGY STAR certification have undergone independent testing to guarantee that they satisfy strict standards.

How Much Can I Save?

Over the course of the unit’s useful life, a family of four may save an average of $3,500 dollars. Don’t wait for your old water heater to break before replacing it! Instant incentives are available from SMECO if you replace your water heater with an energy-efficient hybrid heat pump water heater right now.

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Work with one of our participating contractors to complete your project. They have received instruction on how to correctly install hybrid heat pumpwater heaters in order to guarantee that they run as effectively as possible. Before acquiring a new hybrid heat pump water heater, be sure you can answer “Yes” to all of the questions listed below in order to prevent placement and space concerns with your new unit.

Installation LocationQuestions:

  • Are you locating your business in an unused place where cooling and noise will not be a problem? Is the place large enough to accommodate more than 1,000 cubic feet of surrounding air (equivalent to about the size of a 12-foot by 12-foot space)? (Placing a hybrid heat pump water heater in a closet, even one with louvered doors, will reduce its efficiency, and you must provide enough clearance around the air entry and discharge points.) If so, does the location provide adequate height for the installation? (In order to accommodate the heat pump, hybrid heat pump water heaters are often taller than ordinary water heaters.)
  • Do you have a condensate drain or pump that can be installed, or does the area currently have one? Is the temperature of the air continuously above the freezing point (32°F)? (At northern areas, hybrid heat pump water heaters do not function in freezing conditions, such as those found outside or in garages during the winter months.)
  • Is the air temperature consistently between 40°F and 90°F throughout the year? (A good location would be near a furnace in a basement that is kept warm throughout the winter.)

Are you locating your business in an unused place where cooling and noise will not be a concern? What percentage of the available area is greater than 1,000 cubic feet of surrounding air (about the equivalent of a 12 by 12 foot room)? (Placing your hybrid heat pump water heater in a closet, even one with louvered doors, may reduce its efficiency, and you must provide for appropriate clearance around the air entrance and discharge points.) a. Is there enough height to accommodate the installation?

; Do you have a condensate drain or pump in place, or can you install one if you currently have one?

(At northern areas, hybrid heat pump water heaters do not function in freezing temperatures, such as those found outside or in garages during the winter.) ; Is the air temperature consistently between 40°F and 90°F throughout the year.

(One of the best locations would be beside a furnace in a basement that is kept warm during the winter.

Heat Pump Water Heater Buying Guide

When deciding whether to install a heat pump water heater, the first three things you should examine are the fuel type, the placement of the heater, and the electrical capacity of your home. Most installers and utility providers will recommend that you continue to use a gas water heater if you presently have one installed. Despite the fact that heat pump water heaters have extremely high efficiency ratings, the cost of operating a heat pump water heater is still much higher than the cost of operating a gas water heater in the majority of circumstances.

  1. Geographical location– The vast majority of incentives are only available when the heat pump water heater is installed in a garage or other non-heated, non-conditioned room.
  2. If you need to move your water heating system to make room for this, speak with your installer about the costs and time commitments involved.
  3. If you have any queries regarding your electrical system, you should ask the installation contractor to lead you through the process of checking it.
  4. The latest plumbing rules and permit charges should be discussed with you by your installer before they begin work on your heat pump water heater installation project in order to estimate the overall cost of the installation project.
  5. Ask your installer to assist you in understanding the routine maintenance requirements of a heat pump water heater.
  6. Additional advice and recommendations can be found in your owner’s handbook.

All You Need to Know About Heat Pump Water Heaters

Image courtesy of It is unusual for homeowners to think about their water heater or its critical contribution to modern living’s comfort and ease. Additionally, few people consider the shockingly high cost of hot water—$400 to $600 a year for an average household, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA)ENERGY STAR program—and the fact that hot water has become increasingly scarce. What could possibly be so expensive about a common household necessity? One simple cause is that traditional water heaters are extremely inefficient, accounting for around 20% of total household energy usage (and 20 percent of each utility bill).

Tragically, far too many households are failing to take advantage of this technology, choosing instead for the default solution—a traditional device that consumes a lot of energy.

Only after that can you examine all of your alternatives and determine which type of water heater is the greatest fit for your needs.

Of course, there are advantages and disadvantages to each competing water heater technology, but heat pump water heaters may be the most exciting of the bunch. Continue reading to find out why this is the case. Photo courtesy of

How Does a Heat Pump Water Heater Work?

Conventional water heaters create heat by the use of energy, which is often either gas or electricity. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) function in a completely different manner than traditional water heaters. Likewise, they make use of energy, but not to create heat, but rather to transmit heat from one location to another—from the air around the appliance to the water contained within the unit’s storage tank. Although it may appear to be magic, the fact is that refrigerators operate in a similar manner.

Heat pump technology is a complicated yet extremely effective method of cooling that involves the heat pump sequentially condensing and evaporating a particular refrigerant fluid while collecting heat along the way.

Most high-pressure water heaters (HPWHs) are designed to provide classic electric-resistance water heating as well, in order to prevent falling behind on demand, particularly during peak periods.

HPWHs, on the other hand, are commonly referred to as “hybrid” types since they are capable of performing both functions.

Energy Efficiency of Heat Pump Water Heaters

Although HPWHs are becoming increasingly popular, this is not due to the subtleties of their underlying technology, but rather to their exceptional efficiency—and, more importantly, how inexpensively they can be operated. In fact, of all the water-heating technologies available today, high-efficiency water heaters (HPWHs) have the lowest operating costs, saving the homeowner money every month for as long as the device is in use (an estimated 13 years). Over time, such small savings build up to a significant sum.

As an extra bonus, ENERGY STAR high-efficiency water heaters contribute to the preservation of the environment.

However, while savings are realized across homes, a variety of factors impact how effective an HPWH might be in your particular family.

Photo courtesy of

Installing a Heat Pump Water Heater

If you’re considering acquiring a high-efficiency heat pump, it’s important to be sure that your home can give the appliance with what it need to function at peak efficiency: an adequate supply of warm air. While alternative water-heating technologies may be installed in spaces as small as a closet, high-pressure water heaters (HPWHs) typically require at least 750 or 1,000 square feet. In addition, any area large enough must maintain a consistent temperature (ideally never going below 40 degrees or above 90 degrees).

Furthermore, if the only acceptable spot for the HPWH happens to be located within a portion of the home that you are responsible for heating, there is a difficult choice to make.

Because of the large number of variables involved, it is advisable to confer with a contractor.

In general, homeowners in cold regions have had success placing high-efficiency water heaters (HPWHs) in unconditioned spaces that are exposed to the heat generated by a furnace, boiler, or washer and dryer. It is very typical to see garages being built in warm areas. Image courtesy of

Affording a Heat Pump Water Heater

Some households aren’t even considering high-efficiency water heaters since the technology needs a significant initial expenditure. The cost of purchasing an HPWH is often three to four times greater than the cost of purchasing a standard type. To make an accurate assessment of the cost-effectiveness of a water heater, you must take into account both the cost of operating the heater and the cost of the equipment itself. HPWHs often pay for themselves within a few years, and any savings made after that go directly into your pocket.

  1. Another crucial consideration in your selection is whether or not you will be eligible for any rebates that may be offered to assist offset part of the purchase price.
  2. It is possible that your local utility, energy service provider, or municipal government will give you with further incentives.
  3. Don’t put it off any longer.
  4. If a heat pump water heater is not an option, you’ll be prepared to replace it with any device that has earned the ENERGY STAR certification.
  5. is the source of the information and viewpoints presented.

Heat Pump Water Heaters

A heat pump may be used to not only heat and cool your home, but it can also be used to heat and chill water. In order to function, an air-source heat pump water heater draws heat from the surrounding air and empties it into a tank, where it heats the water to a higher temperature. A heat pump water heater has the appearance of a tall cylinder with a tiny chamber at the top and a bigger chamber at the bottom of the unit. An evaporator that runs down the interior of the chamber, as well as a fan and a cylindrical compressor, are located in the upper chamber.

The top of this valve has a tube that is known as a hot water exit linked to it.

Resistance components connect the top thermostat to the lower thermostat, which is also similar in design.

The anode, which is a series of thin tubes that go through the bottom chamber and into a coiled tube known as the condenser, is located inside the cylinder. Insulation is installed along the interior of the cylinder’s circumference.

Selecting a Heat Pump Water Heater

Heat pump water heater systems have greater startup costs than traditional storage water heaters, which is a common occurrence. They do, however, have reduced running expenses, which can help to offset the greater purchase and installation costs. You may acquire a heat pump water heating system that has a built-in water storage tank as well as backup resistance heating elements for a more affordable option. It is also possible to convert a heat pump to function in conjunction with an existing conventional water heater.

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When it is cold outside, these combination systems draw their heat from the outside air, and when it is hot inside, they draw their heat from the inside air.

Before purchasing a heat pump water heating system, you should take the following factors into consideration:

  • Dimensions and first-hour evaluation
  • Type of fuel and availability of fuel
  • Energy efficiency (sometimes known as the energy factor)
  • Costs as a whole
Installation Considerations

Your heat pump water heating system’s energy efficiency may be increased if it is installed and maintained correctly. A variety of elements influence the success of an installation. such as the type of fuel used, the environment, the needs of the local construction code, and safety concerns Consequently, it is recommended that you have your heat pump installed by a trained heating professional. Heat pump water heaters must be installed in regions where the temperature remains between 40o and 90oF (4.4o and 32.2oC) year-round and where there is at least 1,000 cubic feet (28.3 cubic meters) of available air space surrounding the water heater.

Installing them in an area with high levels of heat, such as a furnace room, is preferable because they will perform less efficiently in a chilly environment.

Geothermal Heat Pumps and Water Heating

Geothermal heat pumps, which collect heat from the ground during the winter and from the interior air during the summer, are the most common type of heat pump installed by homeowners for the purpose of heating and cooling their houses. A desuperheater can be used in conjunction with a geothermal heat pump system to provide water heating. It is a tiny auxiliary heat exchanger that heats water using superheated gases from the heat pump’s compressor, which is connected to the main heat pump. This hot water is then circulated through a line to the storage water heater tank in the dwelling.

Summertime: The desuperheater makes use of the extra heat that would otherwise be released to the ground by the air conditioner.

The storage or demand water heater will have to provide more heat for the water throughout the colder months of the year, such as the fall, winter, and spring when the desuperheater isn’t providing as much heat.

In addition, some manufacturers provide triple-function geothermal heat pump systems that may be used for heating, cooling, and producing hot water. They employ a separate heat exchanger to satisfy all of the hot water requirements of a family.

Heat Pump Water Heater Pros and Cons – W. G. Speeks

Photograph courtesy of Justnartist/ Are you looking to purchase a new water heater? Even while you could always go with a low-cost alternative, with so many advancements and advances in technology, you might want to consider one that is both energy efficient and likely to last a long time! You’ll quickly realize, though, that there are an increasing number of alternatives available, and selecting the most appropriate one might be challenging. Today, we’ll go over some of the advantages and disadvantages of heat pump water heaters.

  • Water heating can account for 14-16 percent of your entire utility bills.
  • If you’ve been thinking about getting a heat pump, this article is for you.
  • Before we get into the advantages and disadvantages of heat pump water heaters, let’s have a look at how they function.
  • However, they do not create any heat in the traditional sense at all.
  • Heat pump water heaters are designed to draw heat from the surrounding environment.
  • As a result, they may not perform as effectively in colder climes or when installed in unheated and uninsulated rooms (such as an unfinished basement).
  • In order for your heat pump water heater to operate properly and safely, you must guarantee that there is at least 1,000 cubic feet of air space surrounding it.

Unfortunately, these restrictions might provide a challenge for those who live in smaller dwellings.

Heat pump water heaters are extremely energy efficient just by virtue of their design.

OutStyle/ is a photo sharing website.

Amazingly, models that have earned the ENERGY STAR certification may save their owners about $300 per year on their power expenses.

Heat pump water heaters are too expensive.


It’s possible that just hearing that may cause you to rethink whether or not this is a feasible choice, but sometimes you have to look at the larger picture.

Within a few years, the unit might really pay for itself, allowing you to save enough money to last for a decade or more.

Heat pump models are safe and environmentally friendly, which is a plus.

Is it possible that you have been concerned about gas leaks or other harmful emissions?

Due to the fact that it does not emit heat, the unit itself will not become hot on the outside, making it a safer alternative for dogs and children.

It may not be able to keep up with demand when there is a lot of it.

In the summer, when the unit can readily draw from warm air, this may not be a significant issue; but, during the frigid winter months, it can become a significant issue.

Especially if you have a large family and everyone wants (or needs!) to take a shower, this may be really frustrating.

Richmond, Virginia heat pump water heaters are available.

To ensure that you are purchasing the suitable model for your house and that it is installed correctly, you should consult with an expert.

In addition, the NATE-certified experts at W.G.

In order for you to buy with confidence, we provide free consultations with our team of pros. The Richmond region has been our home for more than 75 years, and we look forward to the opportunity to work with you as well. Give us a call right now. We’re here to assist you!

Demystifying heat pump water heaters

Sherry Listgarten contributed to this article. E-mail Sherry Listgarten is a writer and editor based in New York City. The following is the description of this blog: Climate change, despite its enormous influence on the earth, is still a vague idea to many of us, despite its obvious consequences. This has to be addressed. It is my aim that by reading this blog, readers may have a better knowledge of how our climate is changing. (More) View all of Sherry Listgarten’s blog postings. Date of upload: January 17, 2021 Local residents have a surprising level of water heater inertia, with many of us still sticking to old-fashioned water heaters.

  • Residents in the mid-peninsula have been eager to accept clean technology of various types, including electric vehicles, solar panels, smart thermostats, LED lights, and other options.
  • Even though we have all of this going on with new-style water heaters, adoption is trailing behind.
  • (1) What exactly is going on here?
  • Following a quick introduction, we will go on a virtual tour of several real-life local installations in this first section.
  • They appear to be quite similar, but the one on the left is connected to a gas line and functions as a gas stove, whilst the one on the right is connected to a power outlet and functions as a refrigerator (in reverse).
  • Images courtesy of Home Depot featuring a gas-powered tank (L) and an electric heat pump (R).
  • They’re around the same height and weight.

The one on the right is somewhat more costly, but it comes with a substantial municipal rebate and has slightly lower utility expenses (2).

I received a wide range of responses that were quite intriguing.

They are completely indistinguishable.

People don’t talk much about their water heaters, so it’s difficult to learn about them without asking them questions.

They are completely indistinguishable.

With a water heater, you can’t send out a “virtual signal.” 3.

The “influencers,” such as the installers, contractors, architects, and builders, are conservative and have a “stick with what you know” mentality when it comes to technology.


An expert opinion on the cause for installer resistance is that there are only a limited number of certified installers in the industry.

Young people are discouraged from entering the crafts as a result of our society, and the unions, which are in decline, are not providing any training.

There is a requirement for electrical work.

As a result, the fuel switching process may take longer and may be more expensive to implement.

They asked the same questions about pricing as before, but they also expressed worries about location and noise.

For the time being, I’ll simply state that in the majority of circumstances, they are not significant roadblocks.

A Virtual Tour of Heat Pump Water HeatersBefore diving into further ideas and recommendations, I want you to see what heat pump water heaters look like in our houses and how they have been installed by professionals.

In this specific instance, a garage had been converted into a family room years before, and a small closet had been designated as a spot for the gas tank water heater to be installed.

These are the primary components of the water heater, as seen in the annotated photo below: It pulls in air, removes heat (with the assistance of a refrigerant) to heat water, and then blows out colder air to cool it down again.

As a result, the heat pump becomes more efficient.

You can also observe that the heat pump is located on the top portion of the appliance, while the water is located on the bottom portion (C).

Even if all of the water in the tank is not yet hot, this feature allows users to take hot water from the tank whenever they choose.

It is necessary to locate the water heater in a location where these may drain (in this case through the exterior wall).

The heat pump is shut off at the conclusion of the 15-second recording, allowing you to hear the change in the air temperature.

The noise level of this heat pump is 49 dB.

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Due to the insufficient insulation of the wall (which is actually a hollow door between the two rooms), the noise inside could be heard, sounding like one of the speakers could be turned on.

A photograph of a similar work, this one in Midtown, is seen below.

When I inquired as to whether the homeowner had made any changes to the timetable, she admitted that she had not even downloaded the app.

It was her claim that if she listened carefully for the hum, she could hear it inside, although it was hardly audible (unlike the wine refrigerator they had installed.).

In fact, they had five houseguests at one time and did not run out of hot water, despite the fact that they were meticulous in how they planned their showers.

(By the way, can you point out any flaws in this installation that may be corrected to make it more efficient?) In other installations that I looked at, the heat pumps were located in the garage.

The earlier type on the left has water intake and outflow from the top of the tank, whereas the newer model on the right does not.

As you can see from the signage, the one on the right has been on some real-world tours!50 gallon heat pump water heaters of various vintages put in garages.

You can hear the sound of the center pump as well as the right pump in operation.

The GeoSpring heat pump on the left is the loudest of the three and is the oldest type, albeit the sound was hardly audible inside due to the high level of insulation in the walls.

You’ll need access to a 240-volt electrical circuit as well as a drainage system.

Maintenance is minimal, thanks to an easily accessible air filter that only has to be cleaned out once or twice a year.

The most crucial pieces of advice I received from installers were as follows:- Plan ahead of time.

The installation of a 240V circuit with sufficient current is sometimes straightforward and other times more difficult.

Heat pump heaters are still in their infancy, so Home Depot or your contractor may not have the kind you desire in stock.

Or, at the very least, configure the necessary circuitry.

Even while it can take months, it is rarely essential, especially with the advent of low-powered choices.

If you do this, it will be much easier for the heat pump water heater to be installed in your electrical panel.

Tom Kabat, the Environmental Quality Commissioner for Menlo Park, believes that “California should simply abolish the 30 amp models.” Kabat has honed his abilities to discover space in electrical panels to an impressive degree.

You may also get Kabat’s “Watt Diet Calculator” worksheet, which you can find here.

Due to the fact that heat pump water heaters warm water more slowly than a gas-fired water tank, adding additional gallons can help to prevent overheating.

The ability to heat your water to greater degrees and then mix the extra-hot water with cold on the way out allows you to increase the capacity of your tank.

(4) Installers, rebates, and installation costs Your local utility can provide you with a wealth of information about heat pump water heaters and incentives, including the following: – Silicon Valley Clean Energy provides a helpful guide that can be accessed on their website.

The website for Peninsula Clean Energy may be found here.

The City of Palo Alto provides additional information on their website.

Silicon Valley Clean Energy offers a fantasticspreadsheet of installations that you can download to get a sense of the contractors and rates available in the region.

In addition, the newSwitchIsOninitiative from California’s Building Decarbonization Coalition provides information on subsidies, contractors, and other resources for all types of electrification, including heat pump water heaters, as well as advice on how to get started.

However, even with the rebates, they will often cost $1000 more in most circumstances.

In my conversations with homeowners, they realized that they would incur an additional expenditure, but they considered it a relatively moderate investment in exchange for reducing their home’s emissions by 33 percent for the foreseeable future.

It is not tax deductible, but it helps to support the burgeoning clean energy industry in your community while also reducing your household’s carbon footprint.

I’ll go into greater detail about costs in my next blog post.

Would appreciate hearing from you if you have any questions or comments on these appliances, as well as any other tales or advice you want to offer.

A special appreciation goes out to David Coale for coordinating the majority of these visits.


The cost of electricity is significantly cheaper if you generate your own solar power.

We’ll go into more detail about this in the future blog article.

I intend to write a piece about electric panels at some time in the future.

In order to make better use of their solar panels, more and more technologies are becoming accessible to homeowners.


An educational pamphlet with some comparison information may be found on the last page of this document.

The “Appliance Assistant” for heat pump water heaters from SVCE can be found here.

Data on the current climate (December 2020) Global consequences, United States consequences, CO2 measure, Climate dashboard (updated annually) The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s graphic depicts how much warmer the year 2020 was than the 20th century average.

Because of this, we require energy-efficient electric heating in our houses.

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Heat Pump Water Heaters

In Australia, high-pressure water heaters (HPWHs) account for around 3% of all water heaters in use. At the time of the 2012 product profile, there were around 18 different brands and approximately 80 different models of HPWH available on the Australian market, and 9 different brands and 25 models available in New Zealand.

What is a Heat Pump Water Heater?

Thermoelectric heat pump Water heaters take heat from the air and transmit it to the water, which is then heated further. As a result, they are sometimes referred to as “air-source heat pumps.” They run on electricity, however they are approximately three times more efficient than a normal electric water heater in terms of energy efficiency. When utilized in the proper setting, they can help you save energy, money, and the environment by lowering greenhouse gas emissions.

How does it work?

An electric heat pump operates on the same concept as a refrigerator, except that instead of pushing heat out of the refrigerator to keep it cool, they pump heat into the water to keep it warm. The pumping of a refrigerant through the system is powered by electricity. The refrigerant is responsible for transferring the heat collected via the air to the water contained within the tank.

Diagram 1. Workings of a heat pump

Heat pumps function by utilizing a refrigerant that evaporates at low temperatures to provide heat. There are various steps involved in the procedure, which are as follows:

  • A liquid refrigerant is forced through an evaporator, where it absorbs heat from the surrounding air and condenses to form a gas. In an electric compressor, the gaseous refrigerant is compressed to a smaller volume. As a result of compressing the gas, its temperature rises to the point where it is hotter than the water in the storage tank. As the hot gas moves through the system and into a condenser, it transfers its heat to the water and transforms back into a liquid. In the next step, the liquid refrigerant goes through an expansion valve, where its pressure is decreased, enabling it to cool before returning to the evaporator to begin the cycle all over again.

Instead of directly heating the water, a heat pump uses power to operate the compressor and the fan, as opposed to a standard electric resistance water heater, which uses electricity to heat the water indirectly. The heat pump is capable of transferring a far higher quantity of heat energy from the surrounding air to the water, making it a highly efficient source of heat energy. The quantity of heat that may be transported from the air to water is dependent on the temperature of the surrounding environment.

The heat pump has an easier time supplying hot water when the outside air is warmer than when it is cooler.

For the evaporator to function properly and allow for continuous absorption of heat, it must be supplied with an adequate supply of fresh air.

Integrated/compact systems and split systems are the two different types of heat pumps that may be purchased.

  • In contrast to a standard electric resistance water heater, which utilizes energy to directly heat the water, a heat pump uses power to operate the compressor and the fan. In order to be highly efficient, the heat pump must be able to transmit a significant quantity of heat energy from the surrounding air to the water. In addition to ambient temperature, the quantity of heat that may be transported from the air to water is also affected by the temperature of the water. As long as the temperature outside is higher than the temperature of the cold refrigerant, the heat pump will absorb the heat and transfer it to the water system. The heat pump has an easier time supplying hot water when the outside air is warmer than when it is cooler inside. As the temperature outside drops, less heat can be transported, which is why heat pumps perform less well in colder climates. It is necessary to have a continuous supply of fresh air in order for the evaporator to allow heat to be absorbed continually. It is necessary to utilize a fan to aid with air movement and to exhaust the cooled air. Integrated/compact systems and split systems are the two types of heat pumps that are available.

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